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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse and/or the shared use of personal items. These conditions, usually in the form of bacteria, viruses, or parasites, can be contracted not only through intercourse during sexual intercourse but also through body secretions. Although most of them can be treated, with the right prevention methods it is possible to avoid getting infected at all. Again, it is critical to intervene before these diseases progress by providing early diagnosis of these diseases with regular gynecological examinations and tests.

Common STDs


HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, is a globally serious sexually transmitted disease. Although some patients can go on living with HIV+ for a long time without any problems, it can lead to fatal consequences if it turns into AIDS. Therefore, early diagnosis plays a critical role in the transmission of this virus.

HPV (Genital Warts)

It is usually asymptomatic but often presents with genital warts. It is a type of virus with multiple subtypes. Contrary to popular belief, it is quite common in society. Since some high-risk types can cause cervical cancer, a vaccine has been developed to prevent transmission.

Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C

Hepatitis viruses, which do not only need sexual intercourse for transmission, cause infection by attacking the liver. The most prominent symptom is jaundice. Since hepatitis B carriage is common throughout the country, vaccination is now given to babies at birth. No vaccine has yet been developed for hepatitis C.


This sexually transmitted type of bacteria is often manifested by vaginal discharge, pain, and odor. It can be asymptomatic, but early diagnosis and treatment are important as the disease can affect the woman’s tubes at a later stage. When it is detected in one of the partners, as with most STDs, co-treatment is recommended and intervention with antibiotics is used.


It is a common bacterial infection that can be transmitted through genital, anal, and oral routes. It is most commonly manifested by symptoms such as genital discharge, burning urine, abdominal and groin pain. If left untreated, the bacteria can spread throughout the body, causing the involvement of many organs and joints, especially the reproductive organs, skin rashes, and rarely meningitis.


This parasitic infection, which is common among STDs, most commonly causes yellow and green discharge, foul odor, and burning in the genital area. Although it can sometimes heal on its own, early diagnosis and is important to prevent the disease from progressing. It is possible to get rid of the disease with Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT).

HSV (Genital Herpes)

HSV 1 usually causes oral herpes, while HSV 2 causes herpes in the genital area. These cold sores are painful sores that appear periodically. It can go away on its own and flare up again when immunity is low. Although there is no cure, some antiviral treatments can be used to alleviate symptoms during periods of exacerbation.


Syphilis, a bacterial infection, is a three-stage disease. In the first stage, it manifests itself with ulcers in the genital area, but in the later stages, symptoms involving the whole body may occur. It can progress without symptoms for many years between stages. Today, it is possible to prevent the disease before it progresses as it is easy to treat.

Molluscum Contagiosum

It is a highly contagious skin lesion caused by the Molluscum Contagiosum Virus, which is transmitted by contact with the genital area or by using common objects. It can go away on its own or, when detected, it is possible to burn it with laser treatment or freeze it with cryotherapy to prevent the disease from spreading.

Contact Op. Dr. Duygu Mutlu.

If you have one or more of the symptoms and have not had your routine gynecological check-up for more than a year, visit our office for a detailed examination.

Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The most effective way to protect against sexually transmitted diseases is to choose barrier protection methods such as condoms during sexual intercourse. Avoiding polygamy also plays a role in preventing diseases. Individuals who have received sexual health education and are aware of diseases before sexual intercourse will prevent the spread of these diseases in society.

Vaccines have been developed for some of the diseases listed above. Getting these vaccinations is very valuable in terms of preventing the disease and taking early measures. In addition, in the later stages, diseases will become more difficult to treat and the suffering caused by them will be immense. For this reason, regular gynecological examinations and all possible tests in case of suspicion are something we always remind our patients about. As with all diseases, paying attention to our personal hygiene, strong body immunity, healthy living, and nutrition rituals play a critical role in preventing sexually transmitted diseases.